Business economics

Business economics is a field in applied economics which uses economic theory and quantitative methods to analyze business enterprises and the factors contributing to the diversity of organizational structures and the relationships of firms with labour, capital and product markets.[1] A professional focus of the journal Business Economics has been expressed as providing "practical information for people who apply economics in their jobs."[2]

Business economics is an integral part of traditional economics and is an extension of economic concepts to the real business situations. It is an applied science in the sense of a tool of managerial decision-making and forward planning by management. In other words, business economics is concerned with the application of economic theory to business management. Business economics is based on microeconomics in two categories: positive and normative.

Business economics focuses on the economic issues and problems related to business organization, management, and strategy. Issues and problems include: an explanation of why corporate firms emerge and exist; why they expand: horizontally, vertically and spacially; the role of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship; the significance of organizational structure; the relationship of firms with employees, providers of capital, customers, and government; and interactions between firms and the business environment.[1]

The term 'business economics' is used in a variety of ways. Sometimes it is used as synonymously with industrial economics/industrial organisation, managerial economics, and economics for business. Still, there may be substantial differences in the usage of 'economics for business' and 'managerial economics' with the latter used more narrowly. One view of the distinctions between these would be that business economics is wider in its scope than industrial economics in that it would be concerned not only with "industry" but also businesses in the service sector. Economics for business looks at the major principles of economics but focuses on applying these economic principles to the real world of business.[3] Managerial economics is the application of economic methods in the managerial decision-making process.[4]

Business economics is actually the part of economics which can be simply regarded as the combination of economic theories and the relevant theories related to business management. Business economics is the study to focus on how economic theories will be affected the performance of business or business activities in practice. There are many practical case studies that have used the economic theories into the corporate development.[5] For example, the product life cycle theory has discussed the entire product life cycle based on the economic perspective, which can be categorized by introduction, growth, maturity and decline. Apple Inc. is a multinational technological company that focuses on the electronic products’ designs and development as well as software development. IPhone is the company’s one of the competitive advantages that generate massive profit for the company. However, since smartphone product has moved to stages between maturity and decline, Apple Inc. has also considered the new product research development such as electric vehicles as the competitive environment in smartphone market becomes fierce and profit margin has declined. The example has well explained the scenario where economic theories do help to support the decision-making in the practical business organisation.